Cook Islands Biodiversity & Natural Heritage

Caranx melampygus


Bluefin Trevally

Multimedia & Additional Resources

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Open this image in pop-up window Image: Adult (Suwarrow) 52KB
Open this image in pop-up window Image: Juvenile with yellow pectoral fins(Rarotonga) 36KB
Open this image in pop-up window Image: Close-up of head & dorsal half spots (Suwarrow) 35KB

General Information

COMMON NAMES: Bluefin Trevally, Bluefin Jack; German Blauflossen-Makrele; French Carangue Bleue, Carangue Étoilé, Carangue à Anale Noire, Carangue Aile Bleue

TRADITIONAL NAMES: Titi‘ara / Kōkōkina < Titi‘ara < Urua (RR), Riporipo < Titi‘ara (MG), Ruporupo < Rupo < Tapauru < Urua (AT), Ruporupo < Rupo < Tapauru < Pa‘o Urua < Urua (MK), Tapa‘uru / Riporipo < Tapa‘uru < Pa‘o < Urua (MT), Pāoa Pūtārau / Riporipo < Ripo Pāoa < Pāoa < Tuatao < Taupoko < Urua (AK), Titiara / Ashiu (PL), Ulua (TS), Urua (TW), Haheu (MH RK), Āyeu / Lupo < Lupolupo < Āyeu < Kawutea (PK); Other Polynesian - Paaihere (TAH), Paruku (TUA), Tahara (MQA); COMMENT: Rarotonga: Titi‘ara and Tītī‘ara both said (Tuti Taringa 98); Aitutaki: five sizes - Ripo Paoa (to 15cm) < Paoa (to 30cm) < Tuatau < Taupoko < Urua.

GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION: NATIVE e.Africa - Ducie, Hawai‘i - tropical America; n. to s.Japan; s. to Norfolk

COOK ISLANDS STATUS: Native; PLUS: N.Group lagoons, common. S.Group, outer slope, uncommon.; Marine, near-shore

KEY FEATURES: To 90cm SL, depth ~2.5 in SL. Greenish-blue above, silvery-green below; darkening with age; tiny blue or black spots on uppersides, increasing with age. To subadult fins pale, except Pectoral yellow; Adults 2nd Dorsal, Anal and Tail bright blue, Pectoral yellow or blue. Breast completely scaled. GENUS CARANX: upper jaw row of canines and band of find teeth, lower jaw row of canines only; large scutes; CARANX+CARANGOIDES: without finlets; Pectoral long and curved; 2nd Dorsal and Anal with anterior lobe; tail long lobed.

Enlarged Image of 'Caranx melampygus'

Cook Islands Distribution

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Southern Group: Present    Makatea:

Northern Group: Present

Key to Symbols

Scientific Taxonomy

Caranx melampygus Cuvier, 1833
TAXONOMY: ANIMALIA; CHORDATA; GNATHOSTOMATA (Jawed Vertebrates); PISCES; OSTEICHTHYES; Perciformes; Percoidei; Percoidea; CARANGIDAE, Caranginae

More Information

GENERAL NOTE: Trevally (also Trevalley, Trevalli and Trevale) is an Australasian name. It is a corruption of Cavally which is derived from the Spanish Cavalla, meaning mackerel. The Trevally family was formerly called the horse-mackerels or scads. [OED]

Vouchers & References

Cooks: Smith-Vaniz 1984, Carangidae. in FAO Species ID sheets. Area 51 vol.1. Mangaia: specimens, NBSAP 9/2000, MMR staff & GM. Atiu: field-specimen, College collection, 10/2000, ID GMcC. Mauke: fieldspecimen, College, ID GMcC. Aitutaki: field-specimen, NBSAP School, 12/2000, ID GM. Palmerston: Photo12 (G&S85); reported (Preston95). Pukapuka: 2xfieldspecimens+photo, 1/2004, trolling, Marurai Marurai, Vigo Jnr. Vigo, and Casper Vigo, ID GMcC. Suwarrow: Photo12 (G&S85).

Special Reference: Smith-Vaniz 1984, Carangidae. in FAO Species ID sheets. Area 51 vol.1.

text p.131 Myers (1991 2nd Ed.) Fishes of Micronesia
plate 46c Myers (1991 2nd Ed.) Fishes of Micronesia
p.161 Randall et al. (1990) Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef....
p.247 Burgess et al. (1988) Atlas of Marine Aquarium Fishes (TFH)
plate 42-02 Lieske & Myers (1996) Coral Reef Fishes
plate 38-03 Allen (1997) Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia....
Species No. 374 Munro (1967) Fishes of New Guinea

Data Update History (information):
zTX, zB02, zM02, zupM05a, zupM06a, zD02

Web Resources

Citation Information

McCormack, Gerald (2007) Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga. Online at Copy citation to system clipboard
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